Saturday, May 23, 2020

Boxing and Violent Sporting Events - 1631 Words

violent-physical-sports-should-be-banned Should violent sports be banned? Contact this writer Should violent sport be banned? YES There should be nothing violent about sporting, yet today violent sports has so dominated the entertainment arena, that some people seems to live by it, and cant get enough of it. These kinds of sports however, should be banned for several reasons. Violence begets violence, and once there are limited restrictions, generations after generations will be caught in a vicious never ending cycle, that will see the homes becoming the scenes of many crimes, the seeds of which were sown, during those years of watching the entertainment events. The blood seen on the screens during the so-called sporting displays will†¦show more content†¦Excellence in any sport becomes an unrelenting quest to push the limits, to exceed and perform better than the competitors and break the earlier records. The best performance is always the one better than that of the previous record holder. Such quest for higher accomplishment is a reward in itself for the true athletes. â€Å"The thrill of victory, the agony of defeat, the human drama of athletic competition..† proclaims a well known TV show for sports events. Such thrill and agony and excitement is experienced not only by the athletes but even more so by the fans. Recall the â€Å"Red Sox Nation† and its delight when their team won the world series after several decades – thus lifting the curse of bambino? http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/baseball/mlb/news/2000/03/22/the_curse_timeline/ All such enthusiasm, left unchecked may lead to violence on the streets. Recently most Police Departments and local officials have managed the spirit of their local crowds – as well as their consumption of â€Å"spirit† - to prevent serious break out of violence, otherwise a common occurrence when a team wins the world series or championship. Tangible rewards such as the trophies, prize money are the additional motivators in sports as well. The connection between the accomplishments of athletes and their use to promote specific products or brands is well known. Remember the â€Å"breakfast ofShow MoreRelatedThe Cold War Developed Between The Soviet Union And The United States847 Words   |  4 Pagesmasculinity achieved prominent status in the sports world. The representation of masculinity is not a monolithic concept and varies widely according to race, age, and geographical location. This definition changed over time as cultural or historical events modified the circumstances. In particular, Hollywood films during the Cold War era constructed models of manhood that bolstered American popular opinion in the fight against communism. In the mid-to-late 1980s, a series of American military-styleRead MoreVicious And Dangerous Sports The Olympic Games1274 Words   |  6 Pagesmay despise them because they mistook these goi ngs on for entertainment. We may forgive them because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no better. But are our feelings of superiority really justified? Are we any less blood-thirsty? Why do boxing matches, for instance, attract such universal interest? Don t the spectators who attend them hope they will see some violence? Human beings remain as bloodthirsty as ever they were. The only difference between ourselves and the Romans is that whileRead MoreThe Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria Essay1644 Words   |  7 Pages Table 1 summarizes these studies in terms of their characteristics, with the original United States study (Cialdini et al., 1976) included for comparison. It can be noted that while most of the studies are situated in the context of a sporting event (i.e. boxing, basketball, football) and how fans reacted to the outcomes of these games, two replications extend BIRG into the display of political affiliations during national elections (Boen et al., 2002) and the act of basking in peer popularity andRead More Fan Violence: Whos To Blame? Essay2402 Words   |  10 Pages â€Å"These people want to hurt you. It’s frightening. You feel like you’re in a cage out there†. Reggie Smith, (Berger, 1990). Spectator violence at sporting events has been recorded throughout history. People who have power over the events, often team owners, indirectly influence the amount of spectator violence by encouraging the factors contributing to violence, in order to benefit themselves. Sale of alcohol, encouraging crowd intensity, creating rivalries, and targeting social groups, are factorsRead MoreFan Violence: Whos to Blame?2527 Words   |  11 PagesThese people want to hurt you. It s frightening. You feel like you re in a cage out there. Reggie Smith, (Berger, 1990). Spectator violence at sporting events has been recorded throughout history. People who have power over the events, often team owners, indirectly influence the amount of spectator violence by encouraging the factors contributing to violence, in order to benefit themselves. Sale of alcohol, encouraging crowd intensity, creating rivalries, and targeting social groups, are factorsRead MoreAn Organization That Specializes And Establishes For Assembling Live Pay Per View ( P.p )1043 Words   |  5 PagesGroup (S.E.G.) is an organization that specializes and establishes in assembling live Pay Per View (P.P.V.) sporting events. The various/variety of considerations, accepts the multiplicity in Martial Arts forms and mottled techniques within each. The originators of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (U.F.C.), desired to control, which one, remained, in existence as ultimately superior. The (U.F.C.) Ultimate Fighting Championship commenced, settings against challengers are into altered styles againstRead MoreCauses of Spectator Violence in Sports1604 Words   |  7 Pagesacceptable. According to Stacey Hall, Associate Director of the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security, â€Å"there are six event characteristics associated with spectator violence, including alcohol intoxication and availability, crowd demographics, event significance, performance quality, crowding, and performer behavior during duration of the event†(18). In order to come with a solution to spectator violence, it is important to identify the causes of these altercations. The most commonRead MoreThe Success Of The 1920s1495 Words   |  6 Pagesthe audience. Were very harsh on violence and nudity because of the traditionalist views. The Hays office was run by a traditionalists so they favored movies like ‘Ten Commandments.† Once the modernist views started to take over more movies were violent and sex in movies evened out. The movie industry allowed for modernists moves to slowly over take the industry and start the movement away from traditional views to the new modern. One big turning point from traditionalism to modernism was the trailRead MoreGender Equality Through Sports And Gender968 Words   |  4 Pagesthe growth of interest in mixed martial arts by woman. All the authors compiled great renditions of what it means to look and act masculine or feminine. Dworkin explains that â€Å"Those in sports like football or boxing, that reward the most extreme possibilities of large, powerful, and violent male bodies, serve as public symbols of exemplary masculinity, with whom all men can identify as men, as separate and superior to women.† (737) For some unknown reason, not addressed by any of these authors, mostRead MoreGeneral Aspects Of Sports Throughout Ancient Games Of Ancient Greece, Boxing, Wrestling And Pankration Essay2270 Words   |  10 PagesGeneral aspects of sports in ancient In Panhellenic games of ancient Greece, boxing, wrestling and pankration were the three major forms of combat sports. In Greece most slaves participated in these events. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Athletes competed against others in a contest with established regulations and procedures, with the objective of beating the other competitors. From Peter Chapter 2 verse 17 it mentions

Monday, May 18, 2020

Application Of Planning Approval And Building Permit

Since the proposal is required to apply for a change of use on land, from dwelling to a food and entertainment area, the Local Council of the City of Cockburn needs to grant a planning approval and building permit is to be issued before any use and construction work are to commence. The proposal of a dwelling area to be redeveloped as a new tavern or restaurant with an outdoor entertainment area requires being in the correct zone to avoid being deemed of refusal by the Council. According to the Town Planning Scheme No. 3 (TPS 3) of the City of Cockburn (City of Cockburn 2014), the permitted zones found on the Scheme map are to be in the Regional Centre, District Centre, and Light and Service Centre. Planning Approval Process A planning†¦show more content†¦The MRS Form 1 is a request form to start development for the Local Council to evaluate and inspect the proposed development. Additionally, a copy of Certificate of Title with Diagram and Strata Plans are also to be submitted with the approval form. These could be acquired through the Landgate website of the Government of Western Australia (www.landgate.wa.gov.au). The Certificate of Title distinguishes the property ownership, survey plans, and any notices and warnings against the title (West Australian Land Information Authority 2015). A Strata Plan covers the sketches of the building, lot sizes, title details, unit entitlement and common property, and any notices and warnings over the property (West Australian Land Information Authority 2015). It would be easiest to order online through the Landgate website with a cost of $24 for both (West Australian Land Information Authority 2015). The only details needed to order are: the street address, lot number, or title number, a debit or credit card, and an email address (West Australian Land Information Authority 2015). Another requirement is a full written account, which includes a detailed development of the proposed development of the building, a justification of the change of use on the building, and a compliance agreement with the City of Cockburn TPS 3, Residential Design Codes,

Monday, May 11, 2020

Essay on Benjamin Franklin - 1740 Words

Benjamin Franklin (An A+ Essays Original Paper, written by WeirdHTML) Benjamin Franklin was one of the first and most famous scientists in America. He was a man of many talents and interests. Franklin was always curios about they way things work, and he always tried to find ways to make them work better. Even though he started out as a published, he was always interested in science. However this interest soon became a passion to Franklin. He even retired from his publishing business to work in a laboratory with his mostly homemade equipment. Throughout his life Benjamin Franklin made many important discoveries and theories which greatly influenced future scientists and inventors. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston Massachusetts, on†¦show more content†¦Franklin realized that if a piece of silk were rubbed against a glass, the glass would have a positive charge. Other scientists at that time believed that rubbing produced electricity, however Franklin said that it was just the electric fluid being transferred from the silk to the glass. This is known today as the law of conservation of change and it is one of the basic principles of physics. Franklin published his theories in a book titled Experiments and Observations on Electricity Made at Philadelphia. It became a best seller in Europe as well as in the colonies. The main topic of this book was Franklins theory that lightning was electrical energy. This was not a new idea, but Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform an experiment on it. He said that if a metal rod was to be placed on top of a tower or a tall building, it would be struck by lightning and hold an electrical charge. Many scientists in Europe tried this experiment, and some had successful results. When a French scientist, De Lor, attempted to repeat one of the proposed experiments from the book a huge crowd of curious people had gathered in Paris to see it. In 1752 Franklin devised another experiment to test if lighting has an electrical charge. He flied a kite carrying a pointed wire in a thunderstorm and attempted to test his theory that atmospheric lightning is an electrical phenomenon similar to the spark produced by an electrical frictional machine (Bruno 406). ToShow MoreRelatedThe Benjamin Franklin1357 Words   |  5 PagesBenjamin Franklin In our American history many figures have left their mark, and are remembered still today. Benjamin Franklin was as famous as any president, but yet never elected to public office. He was one of the nation’s revolutionary founding fathers of all time. Benjamin Franklin was a respected hero of America of many talents and accomplishments. First of all, Benjamin Franklin was born at Boston in 1706. He was the tenth sibling in the family. He was the son of a soap and candle maker.Read MoreThe Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin1367 Words   |  6 PagesMatthew Matheny HIST 2020 A.P. Tammy Prater 23 November 2014 Benjamin Franklin The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is a detailed account of the illustrious experiences of Benjamin Franklin. Though the cultural differences in writing has changed since the 18th century one can learn a lot about one of America’s greatest forefathers through this book. It accounts for Franklin’s life when he was born January 17th, 1706 till the year 1757. Unfortunately, he died in 1790 and was never able to finishRead MoreBenjamin Franklin Essay1518 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Susanna Dey 19 November 2011 Benjamin Franklin Say the name Benjamin Franklin and you may picture a chubby man with spectacles holding a kite during a lightening storm. Perhaps you picture him a older man with spectacles propped up on his nose standing in a great room full of distinguished gentlemen signing the Declaration of Independence. Both of these facts about Benjamin Franklins life would be true. However, there was so much more to Mr. Franklin. He was a diplomat, a statesmanRead More Benjamin Franklin Essay1954 Words   |  8 Pages Benjamin Franklin-Scientist and Inventor Benjamin Franklin has influenced American technology, and indirectly, lifestyles by using his proficiencies and intelligence to conduct numerous experiments, arrive at theories, and produce several inventions. Franklins scientific and analytical mind enabled him to generate many long lasting achievements which contributed to the development and refinement of modern technology. Few national heroes, including George Washington and ThomasRead MoreThe Autobiography By Benjamin Franklin1952 Words   |  8 PagesThe Autobiography In the autobiographical essay aptly entitled â€Å"The Autobiography† (1791) Benjamin Franklin, a writer, renowned inventor, and American founding father confides that he had made attempts in his youth at emulating Perfection through the apprehension and application of 13 traits: Temperance,Silence, Order, Resolution, Frugality, Industry, Sincerity, Justice, Moderation, Cleanliness, Tranquility, Chastity, and Humility. Enunciating his ideas by checking the aforementioned traits off theRead More Benjamin Franklin Essay1332 Words   |  6 PagesBenjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston on January 17th, 1706. His father was Josiah Franklin, a candle and soap maker. His mother was Abiah Folger and she was Josiahs second wife. Benjamin Franklin was the youngest son of 17 children. Benjamin attended Boston Latin School for two years but did not graduate because of lack of money; however he continued his education by reading great quantities. His parents wanted him to go i nto the church, however at age 10 his schooling ended and heRead MoreThe Birth Of Benjamin Franklin1014 Words   |  5 PagesIn January of 1706 the future of America was changed forever with the birth of Benjamin Franklin. Born in Boston, Massachusetts Ben was the son of Josiah Franklin and Abiah Folger, Ben was the youngest son of 17 children. Josiah was a soap maker and he wanted Benjamin to enter the clergy. Ben went to South Grammar School where he excelled, he even skipped a grade. Unfortunately with such a large family, Josiah was unable to afford the education that it took to become a clergyman. Ben only had theRead MoreBenjamin Franklin Essay1741 Words   |  7 PagesWho was Benjamin Franklin? Probably not quite who we think he was. Yes, he was one of the Founding Fathers, the only one who put his name to all three of the founding documents of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain, and the Constitution under which we st ill live. He may have become famous for his many sayings in praise of being industrious and frugal in one’s calling, but he left his own calling as a printer and retired from business at theRead More Benjamin Franklin Essay990 Words   |  4 Pages Benjamin Franklin nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Benjamin Franklin was a remarkably talented man. He started his career as a simple printer apprentice, but went far beyond the printers shop. He developed products that were far beyond the time. The Franklin stove for example, for cold winter nights and bifocal lenses for reading. Franklin tracked storm paths to help understand the wicked weather endured by the colonies. His study of electricity made him most famous for he was known around the worldRead MoreThe Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin529 Words   |  3 PagesThe Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin has many things, but maybe more than anything else about Benjamin Franklin it explains about him being a politician, and there is no more reason to look out for an unbiased autobiography from Franklin than from any other politician. This Franklin is a persona, a conscious literary creation bestowed for our contention One of Franklin’s virtues is humbleness, and his humbleness comes out in the form of his book. His narrative is extremely

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The American Dream - 1308 Words

During the era, the American dream was the notion that a man could create a successful life for himself and his family. As discussed earlier, America effectively isolated women and African Americans, therefore they had no way to make a living to support themselves. A prime example of this would be the poem I Hear America Singing by Walt Whitman. Whitman describes the sound of America as one of hard work produced by workers. He writes, â€Å"the carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam † (Whitman 3). It illustrates the hard work that Americans put into their careers, and their willingness to support the nations economy. No African Americans appear in the poem, and Whitman describes women working in the house. Once again, the†¦show more content†¦Similar to the strict gender roles in careers, religion also created social norms that prohibited African and Americans from participating in certain activities. Religion majorly influenced the American social nor ms and promoted the idea of exclusion heavily and white men fully supported it. Since the time of migrating, religion has constantly been at the heart of America’s priorities. Not only did religion guide the social norms of the nation, but it also provided American’s with a sense of comfort and something to believe in. However, religion mainly acted as a tool to help people make moral decisions, for example in the short story, Young Goodman Brown. The short story follows a young man who goes on a religious journey, during the expedition Brown found himself running from devilish creatures and used God to guide him to safety away from the â€Å"wicked one† (Hawthorne 1). Men and Women across the country used their religions to guide their moral compasses and decide what they should tolerate in their nation. For instance, in this era, many people used religion to justify the need for slavery, which gave birth to the idea exclusivity was okay, and that the bible s upports white supremacy. It also allowed many Americans to claim that slavery was a part of God’s plan. The recurrent lack of inclusion from American society once again presents itself in American’s religious tolerance. ProtestantismShow MoreRelatedImmigrants And The American Dream1362 Words   |  6 PagesImmigrants and the American Dream In the article â€Å"The American Dream†, by James Truslow Adams in The Sundance Reader book, he stated that the American dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and highRead MoreThe American Dream By Kimberly Amadeo1637 Words   |  7 PagesNowadays, a large number of people migrate to the United States to work and achieve the American Dream. According to the Article â€Å"What is the American Dream?† by Kimberly Amadeo, â€Å"The American Dream was first publicly defined in 1931 by James Truslow Adams in Epic of America. Adam’s often-repeated quote is, ‘The American Dream is that dream of land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyon e, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement.’† There are many peopleRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The American Dream 754 Words   |  4 Pages Nyreel Powell Ms. Jones American Literature 1 June 2015 The American dream in A Raisin in the Sun Have you ever had a dream and it didn’t come how you wanted it to be? Have you ever had accomplishments that you wanted to achieve but people were getting in the way of them? The four main characters in this book all have good dreams but there are people in the way of getting to those dreams or their dream is too high to accomplish. A Raisin in the Sun a play written by Lorraine Hansberry, andRead MoreSister Carrie and the American Dream1618 Words   |  7 PagesThe American Dream is surely based on the concept of â€Å"Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness† but it is above all, a matter of ambition. James Truslow Adams, an American writer and historian, in 1931 states: life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement†, which not only points towards a better standard of living for Americans but also denounces a degree of greed in the US society. Ambition not only â€Å"killed the catâ₠¬  butRead MoreGrapes Of Wrath And The American Dream1644 Words   |  7 PagesThe idea of the American Dream is ever changing depending on the person and the time of life that person is in. Although the main ideas of the American Dream remain the same to be educated, economically sound, healthy, to have a family, and equal rights. Many great films and works of literature were created to show case all the different ideas people have for their American Dream. The film â€Å"Grapes of Wrath† directed by John Ford and the poem â€Å"I Will Fight No More Forever† by Chief Joseph, both depictRead More Destruction of the American Dream Essay2145 Words   |  9 PagesDestruction of the American Dream I’ve talked about it in the past, the destruction of the American Dream. Always, there have been papers, writings, and thoughts that quantify a particular section of its ultimate demise, be it due to money, education, or sexuality. Maybe the destruction cannot be viewed as a singular event or cause. Perhaps instead it must be examined as a whole process, the decay and ultimate elimination of a dream. Self destruction, if you will†¦ Mr. Self Destruct Read MoreSuccess As One Of The American Dream1137 Words   |  5 PagesApril 2015 Success as One of The American Dream When we hear the word â€Å"success†, we often think of wealth and money. To some people, the embodiment of being success is earning a lot of money. In fact, the concept of success is primarily based on how much money a person earns. However, each person views the definition of success differently. One way to define success is something that has more to do with flash than it does with substance. John Wooden, an American basketball player and coach viewRead MoreJim Cullen And The American Dream2081 Words   |  9 Pages The American Dream, as defined by Cullen, is starting your goal off with a little and ending with more; it s like a business, you invest in it in order to gain more money. Usually, people will define the American Dream as being able to achieve your goal because everyone is offered opportunities. Cullen does acknowledge that people are born with different opportunities, so he talks about the good life. The good life describes different factors that determine your opportunities. Throughout the otherRead MoreFactors Influencing The American Dream1834 Words   |  8 Pagesindividual to succumb or to not succumb to the seductions of crime. These three factors are brilliantly portrayed in the television show, Breaking Bad and the novel, The Stick Up Kids. The American Dream is what many American citizens strive for. However, not all of those citizens are able to achieve the American Dream through a legal pathway. The reason an indivudal may not being able to do so is because of his or her background factors. It is important to note that background factors are a fractionRead MoreShark Tank And The American Dream1755 Words   |  8 PagesShark Tank and The American Dream The TV show Shark tank embodies everything the American dream represents. The show obtains successful Entrepreneurs ready to invest their own money into other Americans wanting to be just like them, reaching the American dream and become a successful entrepreneur. The show presents entrepreneurs working towards the goal of creating a business to not only gain wealth but also change the way we live today. The show is to keep the American dream alive and well while

Canada’s Recreational Parks Free Essays

â€Å"The capacity to use leisure rightly is the basis of a man’s whole life.† This observation by Aristotle clearly proves the significance that it holds in our time. Previously, when the struggle for food and shelter took most of a man’s time, the ability to use leisure rightly had less significance. We will write a custom essay sample on Canada’s Recreational Parks or any similar topic only for you Order Now Over time there has been a vast change in thinking with regards to the usefulness of leisure, especially pertaining to issues concerned with land use and outdoor recreation resources. Hence, this essay will present a case study on Algonquin Provincial Park, which will draw on aspects of the workings of leisure and/or tourism and how various theories such as Distance Decay, the ‘Ellis Curve’, the theories of Valene Smith and Doxey, give an insightful meaning to the planning and management of sustainable ecosystems. In Canada, the emergence of parks, especially national and provincial parks, plays an integral role in our consideration of outdoor recreation resources. Public awareness with regards to this importance has enabled the public to â€Å"recognize more clearly a collective responsibility for the management of our environment and preservation of its values.† Also, with the technology that has become increasingly available to use, our abilities to alter the landscape have left very little lands to preserve in their natural beauty. Therefore, the conservation or preservation of resource-based parks should be implemented before all opportunities disappear permanently. As well, providing leisure opportunities enables us to fulfill our objectives of the best possible standard of living for every individual. In relation to this point there is a growing acceptance the â€Å"nature sanctuaries of solitude and repose where people can find re-creation of body and spirit are essential to provide a change from the pace and demands of modern civilization.† Thus, the provision of suitable land for outdoor living should deserve consideration in competing land uses. It is already agreed upon the notion that we must provision land for outdoor recreation as a necessary public service; but the question now remains how to maintain the demand for such services when faced with a dwindling supply (available land) and an increasing demand (rising population, rising income/quality of life = increasing discretionary income = availability of more leisure time). This leads us to the objectives of the necessity and objectives of our (Ontario) provincial park system. The basic reasons for establishing provincial parks have remained essentially fluid over time. â€Å"Protection, recreation, heritage appreciation, and tourism are the objectives of the current provincial park system.† These were the same reasons evoked in the late 1800’s for setting aside the first provincial parks in Ontario. As a general description, in Ontario, the parks tend to be fragmented and multilayered. This means that at the provincial level of parks and outdoor recreation there are â€Å"at least 15 provincial departments, agencies, or commissions are actively engaged in parks and open space programs.† The parks are essentially used by many groups and individuals to satisfy a great number of recreational needs. Therefore, a given park may be multi layered(administered at several governmental levels) and multi purpose in nature. Recently, with respect to the objectives of provincial parks, the policy has taken an economic outlook towards its managements. For instance, according to the official mandate of Ontario Parks is â€Å"to protect, plan, develop, and manage Ontario’s system of provincial parks while improving their self reliance.† Thus, the objective of creating and managing these parks is to â€Å"improve services to increase revenues, and, inturn, to sustain other parks.† This shows a marked difference in the nature of recreation perceived by park developers. By this we mean that the nature of the park itself has changed from one that was once for conservation and recreation to that of financial stability. For example, from excerpts from the Ontario Parks Objectives, the business objectives include the objective of â€Å"operating more like a business and improving customer service and market our products and services†¦Ã¢â‚¬  as goals. Their business plan includes, among others, objectives to create â€Å"a special purpose account for retaining and managing park revenues (fees, licences, permits, rentals) to be developed. It will improve customer service, maximize revenues and make park operations more efficient and accountable.† As this shows, the very basic existence of Ontario Parks has changed from one that provided outdoor recreation opportunities to every man, woman and child, to that of a corporate enterprise, trying to maximize profit in a monopolized marketplace. This is how recreation has changed over the time frame of the development of the parks to the present day policies and initiatives undertaken by the province which manages these parks. Algonquin Park is Ontario’s first Provincial Park and is located in the region of ‘Near North’ in Ontario. The essence of Algonquin is its vast Interior of maple hills, rocky ridges, spruce bogs, and thousands of lakes, ponds and streams. More than 250 bird species have been recorded in the park. Many southern and overseas birders make special trips to Algonquin just to see northern specialties such as the Gray Jay and the Spruce Grouse, not to mention the rich variety of warblers or Algonquin’s most famous bird of all – the Common Loon, found nesting on just about every lake. Hence, a practical casestudy to examine, is that of Algonquin Park. Algonquin Park was established in 1893 due to the growing concerns at the time. These issues revolved around the wood supply and climate that were being threatened by massive clearing of forests. The person responsible for the parks first lands reserves was Robert Phipps, who was strongly influenced by the public and senior civil servants of Ontario. Phipps believed that it was imperative to stop settlement and land clearing activities in this part of Ontario. He stated that â€Å"when covered with extensive woods the principal heights of land forms reservoirs which supply the sources of numerous rivers, give moisture to the numerous small lakes and watercourses†¦below them, and preserve throughout the whole country a fertility, invariably much impaired when the forests are removed.† Robert Phipps enlisted the help of Alexander Kirkwood, who advised a commission that the objectives of establishing the first provincial park should be to â€Å"1)preserve the headwaters of the park river systems, 2) to preserve the native forests, 3) to protect birds, fish, game and fur bearing animals, 4) to provide an area for forest experimentation, 5) to serve as a ‘health resort and pleasure ground for the benefit, advantage and enjoyment of the people of the province.† As well, the chairman of the Royal Commission on Game and Fish, that the provincial government had been forced to set up, by the public, was convinced that Ontario’s fish and wildlife were in the process of being eliminated. Therefore it was recommended the â€Å"formation of a provincial game park as the best means of restocking the province† with wildlife should be created. These powerful influences ensured that the park would be created and maintained. Therefore, by establishing the park in 1893, it not only tended to stop logging but to establish a wildlife sanctuary, and by excluding agriculture, â€Å"to protect the headwaters of the five major rivers which flow from the park.† The original name was â€Å"Algonquin National Park†, but it was in fact always under Ontario’s jurisdiction. The name was officially changed to Algonquin Provincial Park in 1913. It was named to honour the Algonquin-speaking first nation people and to date covers more than 7725 square kilometres of forest, lakes, and rivers. As the park has changed and evolved since its creation, so to have the policies concerning Algonquin. The construction of the railroad across Algonquin after the park was created, was used primarily for logging purposes. It was constructed between the years 1894 and 1896. However, the completion of the railway had a great effect on the recreational use of the new park, for it was now accessible for the first time to everyone. For the next 40 years, the people using the park for purposes like lodges, youth camp, could only be accessed by train. Some predicted that the multi purpose uses for the park (logging, recreation) would soon run into complications. After the construction of Highway 60 from 1933 to 1936, an alternative to the railroad provided even greater access to the park’s facilities. More than 3600 automobiles entered the park’s gate during the highway’s first full year of operation, and soon campgrounds had been established at popular sites. At the same time, this more convenient means of access to Algonquin made the demise of the railroad just a question of time. The increasing conflict between logging and recreation finally came true – the late 1960s were a time of great public controversy and debate about the role of logging in Algonquin. Most believed that the logging was unacceptable with the wilderness park they wanted. This lead to the Algonquin Park Committee designed to present and implement official policy guidelines with regards to the management of Algonquin provincial park. The report created was called the Algonquin Master Plan. It addressed the contemporary issues/problems that were facing the park and the solutions recommended by park planners to rectify the situation. The Algonquin Park Master Plan was released by the Ontario government in 1974. It was also decided to review the effectiveness of this plan’s policy every five years and to suggest better ways to improve the park during these times. These periodic public reviews and modifications would not take away the main focus of the plan. As stated earlier, the plan was prepared by the Ontario government in an attempt to resolve the many â€Å"conflicting demands being placed on the Park, and to set out rational guidelines for Algonquin’s future use and development in the face of pressures that can only become stronger in the years to come.† The Master Plan’s official goal for Algonquin is to â€Å"provided continuing opportunities for a diversity of low intensity recreational experiences, within the constraint of the contribution of the Park to the economic life of the region.† What this essentially implied is that logging would continue to operate within the park’s boundaries, but that it would be managed in such a way that the â€Å"feel† of wilderness is not destroyed by either logging or recreational activities. The main features from the Master Plan remain unchanged. Some of the highlights from the Master Plan include that the park is divided into zones each with different allowed uses. Logging, for example, is permitted only in the recreation-utilization, or about 57% of the park’s total area. Other zones include wilderness zones, development zones, nature reserve zones, and historical zones. Another feature of the Plan was the cancellation of the existing timber licences held by some twenty logging companies, and the creation of a Crown agency called the Algonquin Forestry Authority. It now carries out all logging and forest management in the park in accordance with comprehensive regulations administered by the Ministry of Natural Resources. The Authority sells the wood to the mills which were formerly supplied by the private companies. In another attempt to control the logging practices of the forest, the provincial government has created a planning process called Lands for Life which states that â€Å"logging companies will manage our public land and will have rights to it for up to 100 years at a time. Logging companies have openly stated that they do not want any new protected areas to come out of Lands for Life and they want to log in existing parks like Algonquin.† The third area where the Plan introduced far-reaching changes was that of recreation in the park interior. In an effort to preserve those qualitites shown by studies and questionnaires to be sought after by the vast majority of interior users, the Plan called for regulations such as banned motor boats from most lakes, limiting the number of canoeists, limiting the size of interior camping parties, and banning disposable cans and bottles in the park interior. Another area under intense scrutiny was that of the park’s perimeter. The committee recommended the provision of additional intensive recreation facilities outside the boundaries of Algonquin park. Basically, the committee had in mind the establishment of additional facilities in order to takes some of the pressure off Algonquin. The park, in their terms, had reached its carrying capacity due to overuse. The natural solution is to establish satellite parks. Another issue relates to that of concessions and the committee commented on this by stating that the â€Å"proposed expansion of the park facilities to meet the anticipated demand is going to be expensive from capital cost and from operating and research expenses. It is appropriate that the park users should pay a fair share of the costs through users’ fees such as entrance and camping fees. The balance of the costs could properly be borne by the general revenues of the province.† Many of these provisions continue to be refined and modified particularly in response to periodic public reviews of the Master Plan. Thus new issues that deal with human interaction through outdoor recreation and the stability of the park are continuously brought up. The decisions by the park planners with respect to the issues facing the park could not have all been foreseen. They believe that the park, though growing and facing new changes with respect to its needs for outdoor recreation, serves â€Å"its original purpose as well as many of the interests currently are being expressed by the various elements within society today.† Taking into consideration the objectives and aims of the Ontario Provincial Government to ensure the protection and future developmental process of the Algonquin Park, one can apply certain theories. A theory which applies to the Algonquin Provincial Park is the issue of Distance Decay. Distance Decay states the further away a place is from a community, there will be a significantly lower the number of visitors. With reference to the Distance Function Graph, the percentage of users of the Algonquin Provincial Park before infrastructure improvements the slope of the curve had a steady outward decrease. However, with the improvements of the infrastructure such as the establishment of Highway 60, the slope of the curve has changed. The inferred increase in the slope of the curve means that the park has become more accessible and hence an increase in the number of visitors. In 1997, more than 8.5 million people enjoyed provincial parks and as many as 2,400 people attended public wolf howling sessions in Algonquin in a day. And with the further improvements of the park, these numbers are expected to increase. The expected increase of users is a concern of Ontario Parks hence a limitation of visitors was established. The Distance Decay function, however, is tied to the theory of Valene Smith, Hosts and Guests, 1977. Smith classifies the type of tourist and their adaptations to local norms. In the past the Algonquin Park has mainly attracted the ‘Explorer’ type of tourist, limited in numbers but who accepts fully the environment. However, an argument can be put forward that the type of tourist to Algonquin has shifted to the ‘Incipient Mass’ type tourist. Reasoning for this classification is because there is now a steady flow of tourist to the park, but mainly because the tourists now seek Western amenities. These amenities are the presence of newly established restaurants, lodging and designated walking trails. The Algonquin Park, in some sense, is moving towards a McDonalization of Tourism, in which vacations are controlled as to the number of people allowed into the park and predictable with respect to the areas visitors are allowed to visit. The natural concept of going to Algonquin to experience nature first hand, is therefore somewhat lost by the adding of museums and the creation of a tourism bubble. There is nothing real anymore. Like Disney theme parks, fakes ( ‘simulacra’) are more real than ‘the real’. The tourism experience becomes one of ‘tourism consumerism’, a concept of Post-Tourism. Therefore, there is no ‘authentic’ tourist experience because the post-tourist realize that they are play a game. The experience of going to Algonquin to watch the birds or to see the wolves is in a controlled atmosphere – it is not the ‘real thing’ – but rather an assimilation of what the tourists expect to see when v isiting Algonquin. In conclusion, the ‘Ellis Curve’ helps to visually summarize the concepts and effects of tourism on Algonquin Provincial Park. Before Algonquin Provincial Park was established in 1893, the placement of Algonquin along the ‘Ellis Curve’ can be arguably placed in the ‘A’ quadrant. The reasoning for this placement is because, the tourism effects were more favourable to the environment – more Explorer type tourist- and to the economy, wherein there was the presence of private logging companies. After 1893, the placement of Algonquin was now closer towards the â€Å"B† quadrant. The tourism effect became less favourable towards the environment and more favourable for the economy. The improved infrastructure created an increase in users, a shift in the type of tourist – Incipient Mass – and an increase presence of logging companies, all of which placed concerns about the carrying capacity of Algonquin Park. However, through the new objectives of the Provincial Government in levying user fees of campgrounds, the consolidation of logging under Crown supervision to deal with the issue of the carrying capacity, the placement of Algonquin could be placed back in Quadrant ‘A’. Striking a balance between the recreational aspect of the park and the economic functions of logging has been the primary focus of Ontario Parks. The step towards the concept of McDonaldization of Tourism can be seen as a form of alternative tourism in which monetary concerns to fund educational programs and the preservation of the ecosystem by limiting human impact, is seen as the better of the two evils. Finally, with drawn reference to the work of Doxey, The Irritation Index of Tourism, my personal opinion is that the present environmental policies in place have established a level of apathy, wherein the attitude of tourist (the public) and host (park operators) is a moderate acceptance and support of tourism and is a positive step towards fulfilling â€Å"the capacity to use leisure rightly as the basis of man’s whole life.† How to cite Canada’s Recreational Parks, Essay examples

Environmental Changes Relationship to Punctuated Equilibrium Theory

Question: Discuss about the Environmental Changes for Relationship to Punctuated Equilibrium Theory. Answer: Essay Introduction: As stated by Lieberman and Eldredge (2014), Punctuated Equilibrium is a theory that talks about the evolutionary process on the basis of pattern that appeared first and then subsequently showed changes. There is no doubt that there have been considerable changes in the environment. These changes are bound to create impact on the industries and businesses as well. Discussion: Every business is largely affected by the macro factors of the region where the company operates. Therefore, changing environmental condition is bound to impact on the business of a company. Keeping the same aspect in mind, many industries have found to make changes in their business activities. For example, dairy industry has been largely affected due to severe changes in environment (Lieberman and Eldredge 2014). If taken into consideration, the dairy animals were reared on the ground for their pasture. However, the scenario has changed and their feeding process has also been changed. This change also has relation with the increasing demand of products. Punctuated Equilibrium has definitely certain role to play. Conclusion: Considering the impact of Punctuated Equilibrium, an organization or a company has to make certain changes in its business ventures. Moreover, in the recent nature of market where competition and Globalization has impacted the business largely, it falls under the strategies of the companies to think of various ways that shall be incorporated to fight against such changes. Article 1: Title and Article Reference Sastry, M. (1997). Problems and Paradoxes in a Model of Punctuated Organizational Change. Administrative Science Quarterly,42(2), 237-275. doi: 1. Available at: https://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/stable/2393920 doi:1 [Accessed on 4-9-2016] Aim/Purpose of article To highlight the problems under a wide range of conditions that lead an organization to make changes in its business operation. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis Empirical research has been conducted based on the theories and other information available from different sources. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article The author highlighted four important factors that lead the management of an organization to make changes. These are strategic orientation, inertia, perceived performance and pressure for change. Significance/Contribution of the article in relation to the topic The article has supported the impact of changes in the environment that compels an organization to make certain changes in their business strategies. This has contributed to the understanding of environmental changes and its impact on industries. Strengths of the article Many journals and books have been used to support the argument of that the author has made. This has given greater insight about the topic and helped to clear the conception regarding the topic. Weaknesses of the article Very less industrial examples have been used in the article that has not cleared the actual implication of the changing factors of the environment that has directly or indirectly impacted the business of a company. Quote from the article As an organization develops, its ability to recognize the impact of the environment increases and the organization thinks of better ways to improve their business. Article 2: Title and Article Reference Martin, M.H. Streams, M. 2015, "Punctuated Equilibrium Theory: An Empirical Investigation of Its Relevance for Global Health Expenditure",Public Budgeting Finance, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 73-94. Aim/Purpose of article To highlighted the impact of the distribution of annual changes in the nature and its impact on the Health Care industry. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis The research is based on empirical findings from various journal articles and books. The study is based on the Health Care industry of USA. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article The Study has highlighted the importance of undertaking a number of changes in the Health industry in order to meet the challenges that this sector faces. The author has highlighted that with the changes in the environment, there have been increase in a number of diseases and Significance/Contribution of the article in relation to the topic The significance of the study helped to understand the implications and the strategies are important for health care industry to undertake to meeting the changing environmental condition. Strengths of the article The article is very informative and narrated a lot of things related to the topic of discussion. The empirical strategies undertaken by the author also helped to open greater horizon towards the understanding of the changing nature of Health care industry. Weaknesses of the article The article highlighted the condition of the USA and did not assume same situation in other countries or continents. Therefore, the findings of the research can only be applied for the US scenario. Quote from the article The policies undertaken by the health industries are more incremental towards the changing scenario of the environment. Article 3: Title and Article Reference Wollin, A. 1999, "Punctuated equilibrium: reconciling theory of revolutionary and incremental change",Systems Research and Behavioral Science,vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 359-367. Aim/Purpose of article To kind the key concepts that act as the major tool in multinational companies to set their business strategies or to make changes in their strategies. Sample, location, method of data collection and analysis Empirical research by the means of undertaking a number of books and journals. Findings/Interpretations reported in the article The author has commented that factors including culture, technology, resources and even distribution of power or resources have great impact on an organization. When these factors will show certain changes, in order to keep pace with these changes, an organization has also had to make changes to survive. Significance/Contribution of the article in relation to the topic The journal has significantly contributed to the fact that an organization will look into all kind of possible factors that could affect its business operation. Depending upon the finding, an organization shall make changes in their business strategies. Strengths of the article The author has discussed a number of concepts related to the study. This has opened the horizon for better understanding of the concept and its major impact on an organization. Weaknesses of the article The article did not support its argument by actual industrial examples. More focus has been made on the various concepts that are responsible for making changing in an organization. Quote from the article Punctuated Equilibrium is a biological evolution theory but the theory also lead to the changes in the organizational operation References: Lieberman, B.S. and Eldredge, N., 2014. What is punctuated equilibrium? What is macroevolution? A response to Pennell et al.Trends in Ecology and Evolution,29, pp.185-186. Martin, M.H. Streams, M. 2015, "Punctuated Equilibrium Theory: An Empirical Investigation of Its Relevance for Global Health Expenditure",Public Budgeting Finance,vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 73-94. Sastry, M. 1997. Problems and Paradoxes in a Model of Punctuated Organizational Change.Administrative Science Quarterly,42(2), 237-275. doi:1. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.cdu.edu.au/stable/2393920 doi:1 Wollin, A. 1999, "Punctuated equilibrium: reconciling theory of revolutionary and incremental change",Systems Research and Behavioral Science,vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 359-367.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Law of Tort

Question: Whether Anna in the Present Case Could File a Case against Trevor for the Act of Negligence or not? Answer: Introduction Under the law of Tort, the term tort has been established from a Latin term for harm, and the aim of a claim for tort was basically to recover damages from the individual by the act of whom the other person has suffered harm. Though there have been different kinds of torts but the main tort which prevails in majority of cases was the tort of negligence (Hobart Community Legal Service, 2013). Negligence has been an unintentional tort wherein an individual was harmed as a consequence of the actions of other individual (Pearson Education, 2010). As per the view of Winfield, Negligence has been defined as a tort under which there was the contravention of a lawful obligation to take care which results in harm, undesired by the respondent towards the claimant (Legal Services Commission of South Australia, 2017). Negligence in its lawful sense have been defined as a failure in law to do act which a sensible individual would have done in the situations. It was in the precedent case of Donoghue v Stevenson[1932] AC 562 that the modern law of negligence was established (E-Lawresources,2017). But it was also stated in this case that for proving a act to be done negligently there have been 4 different elements which must be present. Also, the burden of proving an act to be done negligently have been imposed upon the claimant. So, in order to prove negligence against other individual a claimant must show that (McCormick and Murphy, 2017): Obligation of Care: There was a duty imposed upon the respondent in the situations to take reasonable care; Violation of Duty to take Care: It was the act or inaction of the respondent in the prevailing situations did not meet the standard of care which would have been taken by a reasonable person in such cases; Harm suffered: The harm or damage have been caused to the claimant in the situations which a reasonable individual could have been predicted to anticipate; Causation: The harm was suffered by the claimant by the contravention of the duty which was owed on the respondent to fulfill (Larson, 2016). In Tame v NSW (2002) 211 CLR 317 it was concluded that the law takes no cognizance of the act of negligence in the manner of summary. It distresses itself with negligence only where there was a obligation to take sensible care and where failure in that obligation has caused harm. Duty The lawful obligation of a respondent towards a claimant was founded on the failure of the respondent in order to fulfill a duty which was renowned under law of which claimant was the anticipated recipient. The primary element which would be bear in mind for determining the existence of a lawfully documented liability was the idea of a duty. So, under the law of negligence the word used for such a liability was the duty of care (Rottenstein Law Group, 2017). But a person would be liable for negligence, even if he or she did not act with rational care if they did not had a obligation towards the other person. So, under the tort law the concept of duty to take care was utilized in order to restrict the situations where a respondent was accountable for the harm of the claimant (Find Law, 2017). The concept of duty of care has been regarded as the situations and the associations which were recognized under law as providing a growth to a lawful obligation to take care. A failure to take sensible care could conclude in the respondent being accountable to pay compensations to a person who suffered harm as s consequence of their contravention of the obligation of care. As a result, it would be essential for the plaintiff to prove that the respondent owed a duty to take reasonable care towards them. It was in Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562, that the subsistence of a concept of duty of care for private harm and property harm was formerly decided by the judges (Hopcraft, 2015). In another matter of Caparo Industries Plc v Dickman [1990] 2 AC 605, the judges took into consideration the situations in which a duty of care may occur. The tribunal outlined 3 major problems which a tribunal must take in view to institute whether or not a duty to take reasonable care was present or not. The 3 problems which must be there were: There must be a sensible prudence of getting hurt; There must be adequate closeness of connection among the claimant and the respondent; It must be just, and reasonable to obligate a duty to take care. In Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330 it was concluded that where there was a physical harm than obligation would comparatively easy to be recognized. Therefore, in the current situation it could be stated that Trevor was a operator of the tour and was responsible for the harm of the people who were there on the trip. As a result, Anna being a member among the people who were there so, Trevor would said to have a duty of care towards her. Breach In order to establish a obligation under negligence, the claimant must depict on the equilibrium of chances that the respondent owed towards the claimant a obligation of care. Such an obligation to take care was violated by failing to meet the standard of care which was necessary and as a consequence harm was suffered by the claimant which was not too remote. As, once it has been recognized that the respondent owed a duty towards the claimant than the matter of whether or not that duty was breached must be settled (Australian Government, 2017). Breach of obligation therefore, needs the respondent to have been at error by not fulfilling their duty of taking reasonable care towards the claimant. But in shaping whether an obligation of taking care has been violated could be done by taking into consideration that whether the required standard of care have been taken or not. Contravention of duty was not restricted to the experts or the individual under a written or a oral agreement. But also all the people of the community have an obligation to exercise sensible concern towards other individual and their belongings. So, an individual who employs in activities that pose an irrational danger towards other people and their belongings that in fact concludes in injury then such a person would be regarded in violation of his duty (The Law Handbook 2016, 2017). In the case of Bolton v. Stone [1951] AC 850 it was recognized that a respondent was not be regarded as neglectful if the harm to the claimant was not a reasonable predictable result of his conduct. Also, it was stated that although the claimant suffered harm but she did not have a lawful assertion as the risk was not adequately predictable. So, it was confirmed by the judges that in deciding whether the respondent has acted sensibly or was in violation of duty would be based upon 4 factors such as there was: Probability of injury; Seriousness of injury; Cost of deterrence; Utility of the conduct of the respondent. In Paris V Stepney Borough Council [1951] Ac 367 it was held that the chance of the harm taking place was very small though but its effects were very grave. So, the defendant should have taken additional concern to grant goggles for the plaintiff. In the current scenerio, there was a clear breach of duty of care on the part of Trevor which he owed towards Anna as she was a part of the team members on the trip and he left the team members alone and went for some work. As Trevor got busy with another work and due to his lack of attention Anna suffered harm. Also, it was dark in the evening when the team returned and it was clearly observed by Trevor that there was situation to have foreseeable harm due to a Frogmouth perched in a tree so there was a lack of duty. So, Trevor should have advised the members of such harm. And Trevor did not told the members about the harm so it could be concluded that there was a clear contravention of his obligation to take care towards all of the members. So, a consequence of such act Annas heal was caught on a tree root due to which she endured knee harm therefore, Trevor would be regarded to be in breach. Damage Damages for the harm which has been suffered by the claimant could be claimed by him against the respondent if it would be established that the respondent have violated his duty towards the claimant under law (Bits of law, 2013). If a person wants to claim damages from a person for the injury caused by the negligent act of such person then the claimant must show that: The respondent acted in a negligent way and was found to be guilty of not fulfilling his duty which he owed towards the claimant; Then evaluation of the sum of proper damages which would be granted would be done by the court. The court would make a differentiation on the point that damages would be considered as special or general damages (Bits of Law, 2013). Special damages: It includes paid off out-of-pocket costs. It comprises of medical and ambulance price, and many more. General damages: It includes loss of earning capability in the future, tenderness and pain, etc. But in this case, damages would not be paid off to Anna as she was contributory negligent. Because the harm caused to Anna was not only due to the negligent act of Trevor but also due to her own carelessness. So, Trevor had taken defence of Contributory negligence. Defence Even when a case have been brought against the respondent stating that he acted in negligent way, Then also he has a defense to take i.e contributory negligence. Also, such a defense could be taken only when the respondent could prove that thought he was neglectful on his part but the claimant also did not take reasonable care in protecting herself and have exposed herself to danger (Find Law, 2017). Basically, against a claim of claimant against the respondent there have been 3 defenses which he could take but mainly the defense which was taken in the case of negligence was contributory negligence. As per the need of this concept of contributory negligence it was clearly confirmed that if a person has failed to take rational care for his own safety or harm then such a person would be said to be contributory negligent (Laws, 2017). In Badger v Ministry of Defence [2005] QBD D it was concluded that as the claimant himself did not take rational care for his own security so he would be contributory negligent against a defendant for his loss and as a result could not claim compensation. So, in the present scenario, though it was Trevor had a obligation of care towards all the members as when Anna removed her shoes and wore other shoes he was watching the rare Marbled Frogmouth perched in a tree which could have caused anticipated harm. But he did not warn her so he was negligent on his part. At the same time, he could held Anna also contributory negligent as Trevor told all the members previously that they must wear shoes which was provided but she abandoned to follow so there was a obvious act of contributory negligence. Remedies So, as in the cases of negligence the remedy provided majorly was the grant of damages but not where there was a predictable harm. But in this case, there would be fewer amounts of damages which would be paid as there was contributory negligence on the part of both the parties (Legal Aid, 2015). In Overseas Tankship (UK) v Morts Dock and Engineering Co (The Wagon Mound) (1961) it was upheld that the respondents were not held liable as the harm caused was predictable. Conclusion At the end it could be concluded that in current scenario as the injury which was caused was predictable and it was the claimant himself who did not take care of her own protection, so there was a collaborative error on the part of both the individuals. But there was a contravention of the obligation on the part of Trevor to take case as he left the members alone at a new place. But in the case if Anna it would be considered that as Trevor told to all the members that they must wear shoes as it was risky and it was her who inaccurately ignored his orders. So, she could not claim Trevor completely liable for the harm. References Australian Government. (2017) Fault. [Online] Australian law Reform Commission. Available from: https://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/7-fault/negligence [Accessed on 22/2/17] Bits of law. (2013) Damage: Causation. [Online] Bits of law. Available from: https://www.bitsoflaw.org/tort/negligence/study-note/degree/damage-causation-factual-legal [Accessed on 22/2/17] Bits of Law. (2013) Remedies: Damages. [Online] Bits of Law. Available from: https://www.bitsoflaw.org/tort/negligence/study-note/degree/remedies-damages-principles-special-general [Accessed on 22/2/17] E-Lawresources. (2017) Negligence. [Online] E-Lawresources. Available from: https://e-lawresources.co.uk/Negligence.php [Accessed on 22/2/17] Find Law. (2017) Contributory and Comparative Negligence. [Online] Find Law. Available from: https://injury.findlaw.com/accident-injury-law/contributory-and-comparative-negligence.html [Accessed on 22/2/17] Find Law. (2017) Elements of a Negligence Case. [Online] Find Law. Available from: https://injury.findlaw.com/accident-injury-law/elements-of-a-negligence-case.html [Accessed on 22/2/17] Hobart Community Legal Service. (2013) Negligence and the Duty of Care. [Online] Hobart Community Legal Service. Available from: https://www.hobartlegal.org.au/tasmanian-law-handbook/accidents-and-insurance/negligence/negligence-and-duty-care [Accessed on 22/2/17] Hopcraft, S. (2015) What is the definition of negligence?. [Online] Wright Hassall.Available from: https://www.wrighthassall.co.uk/knowledge/legal-articles/2015/04/23/what-definition-negligence/ [Accessed on 22/2/17] Larson, A. (2016) Negligence and Tort Law. [Online] Expert Law. Available from: https://www.expertlaw.com/library/personal_injury/negligence.html [Accessed on 22/2/17] Laws. (2017) Contributory Negligence. [Online] Laws. Available from: https://negligence.laws.com/contributory-negligence [Accessed on 22/2/17] Legal Aid. (2015) Negligence. [Online] Legal Aid. Available from:https://www.legalaid.wa.gov.au/InformationAboutTheLaw/BirthLifeandDeath/Personalinjury/Pages/Negligence.aspx [Accessed on 22/2/17] Legal Services Commission of South Australia. (2017) What is negligence?. [Online] Legal Services Commission of South Australia. Available from: https://www.lawhandbook.sa.gov.au/ch29s05s01.php [Accessed on 22/2/17] McCormick and Murphy. (2017) Understanding the 4 Elements of Negligence. [Online] McCormick and Murphy. Available from: https://www.mccormickmurphy.com/diy/liability/negligence/ [Accessed on 22/2/17] Pearson Education. (2010) Negligence and Unintentional Torts. [Online] Pearson Education. Available from: https://wps.prenhall.com/ca_ph_blair_law_1/2/538/137983.cw/index.html [Accessed on 22/2/17] Rottenstein Law Group. (2017) What is negligence?. [Online] Rottenstein Law Group. Available from: https://www.rotlaw.com/legal-library/what-is-negligence/ [Accessed on 22/2/17] The Law Handbook 2016. (2017) Negligence, liability and damages. [Online] The Law Handbook 2016. Available from: https://www.lawhandbook.org.au/10_01_01_negligence_liability_and_damages/ [Accessed on 22/2/17]